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陳望道譯《共產黨宣言》(節選)
時 間:2020-12-04 09:17:13  瀏覽次數:1   杭州中譯翻譯有限公司

A spectre is haunting Europe—the spectre of communism. All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Pope and Tsar, Metternich and Guizot, French Radicals and German police-spies.

Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as communistic by its opponents in power? Where is the opposition that has not hurled back the branding reproach of communism, against the more advanced opposition parties, as well as against its reactionary adversaries?

Two things result from this fact:

I. Communism is already acknowledged by all European powers to be itself a power.

II.It is high time that Communists should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish their views, their aims, their tendencies, and meet this nursery tale of the spectre of communism with a manifesto of the party itself.

To this end, Communists of various nationalities have assembled in London and sketched the following manifesto, to be published in the English,French, German, Italian, Flemish and Danish languages. 

I. Bourgeois and Proletarians

The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.

Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.

In the earlier epochs of history, we find almost everywhere a complicated arrangement of society into various orders,

a manifold gradation of social rank. In ancient Rome we have patricians, knights, plebeians, slaves; in the Middle Ages, feudal lords, vassals, guild-masters, journeymen, apprentices, serfs; in almost all of these classes, again, subordinate gradations.

The modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society has not done away with class antagonisms. It has but established new classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old ones.

Our epoch, the epoch of the bourgeoisie, possesses, however, this distinct feature: it has simplified class antagonisms. Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other—bourgeoisie and proletariat.

From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.

The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonization of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

The feudal system of industry, in which industrial production was monopolized by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop.

Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacturers no longer sufficed. Thereupon,steam and machinery revolutionized industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry; the place of the industrial middle class by industrial millionaires, the leaders of the whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois.

(Marx&Engels,1969:14-15; Tr./Moore)


有一個怪物,在歐洲徘徊著,這怪物就是共產主義。舊歐洲有權力的人都因為要驅除這怪物,加入了神圣同盟。羅馬法王,俄國皇帝,梅特涅,基佐(Guizot),法國急進黨,德國偵探,都在這里面。

那些在野的政黨,有不被在朝的政敵,誣作共產主義的嗎?那些在野的政黨,對于其他更急進的在野黨,對于保守的政黨,不都是用共產主義這名詞作回罵的套語嗎?

由這種事 實可以看出兩件事:

共產主義,已經被全歐洲有權力的人認作一種有權力的東西。

共產黨員,已經有了時機可以公然在全世界底面前,用自己黨底宣言發表自己的意見,目的,趨向,并對抗關于共產主義這怪物底無稽之談。

為了這緣故,各國共產黨員便在倫敦開了個會,草了下列的宣言,用英、法、德、意、弗蘭德、丹麥各國底語言,公布于世界。

有產者及無產者

一切過去社會底歷史,都是階級爭斗底歷史。

自由民(Freeman)和奴隸(Slave),貴族(Patrician)和平民(Plebeian),領主(Lord)和農奴(Serf),行東(Guild-master)和傭工(Journey-man),總而言之,就是壓迫階級和被壓迫階級,從古到今,沒有不站在反對的地位,繼續著明爭暗斗。每次爭斗底結局,不是社會全體革命的新建設告成,便是交戰的兩階級并倒。

我們略看前代的歷史,便會曉得無論何處都是組織復雜的社會里分出各種階級,社會的地位分出各種等級。在古代羅馬有貴族,騎士(Knight),平民,奴隸;在中世紀,有封建領主,家臣(Vassal),行東,傭工,徒弟(Apprentice)和農奴;這些階級里,又隸屬許多等級

從封建社會底廢墟上發生的近代有產社會,也免不了有階級對抗;不過造出新的階級,新的壓迫手段,新的爭斗形式,來代替那舊的罷了。

我們的時代,就是這有產階級(Bourgeoisie)時代,他的特色就是把階級對抗弄簡單了。社會全體現已漸次分裂成為對壘的兩大營寨,互相敵視的兩大階級:這就是有產階級和無產階級。

由中世紀底農奴里面,曾發生一種最初都市底特許市民;這些市民,便是有產階級最初的種子。

嗣后,美洲底發現,好望角底周航,新添給有產階級一些發展地:東印度和中華底市場,美洲底殖民,殖民地底貿易,交換機關和物品底增多,又都使當時的商業航海業,和制造工業,受一種空前的刺激;因此,那革命種子便在頹廢的封建社會里急激的發展了。

在封建時代的工業組織底下,生產實業是由同行組合一手把持的,到了這時,便不能應付新市場上需要底增加了;于是手工工場 組織(Manufacturing system)便占了他的地位。各業行東被工場制造家這種中等階級擠倒;聯合的各行組合間底分工,也就讓各個工場底分工替代了。

接著市場一天比一天擴大,需要又一天比一天增加;這時手工工場組織,也不能應付了。于是又有蒸汽及大機器出來演了一場生產事業底革命。從此,大規模的“近代產業”,便取了手工工業底地位;豪富的實業家,產業軍底總首領,近代的有產階級,便把產業界的中等階級降服了。

(陳望道譯,2009:005-007)




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