當前位置: >> 經典案例 >> 翻譯知識
時 間:2020-12-04 09:17:13  瀏覽次數:1   杭州中譯翻譯有限公司

A spectre is haunting Europe—the spectre of communism. All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Pope and Tsar, Metternich and Guizot, French Radicals and German police-spies.

Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as communistic by its opponents in power? Where is the opposition that has not hurled back the branding reproach of communism, against the more advanced opposition parties, as well as against its reactionary adversaries?

Two things result from this fact:

I. Communism is already acknowledged by all European powers to be itself a power.

II.It is high time that Communists should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish their views, their aims, their tendencies, and meet this nursery tale of the spectre of communism with a manifesto of the party itself.

To this end, Communists of various nationalities have assembled in London and sketched the following manifesto, to be published in the English,French, German, Italian, Flemish and Danish languages. 

I. Bourgeois and Proletarians

The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.

Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.

In the earlier epochs of history, we find almost everywhere a complicated arrangement of society into various orders,

a manifold gradation of social rank. In ancient Rome we have patricians, knights, plebeians, slaves; in the Middle Ages, feudal lords, vassals, guild-masters, journeymen, apprentices, serfs; in almost all of these classes, again, subordinate gradations.

The modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society has not done away with class antagonisms. It has but established new classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old ones.

Our epoch, the epoch of the bourgeoisie, possesses, however, this distinct feature: it has simplified class antagonisms. Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other—bourgeoisie and proletariat.

From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.

The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonization of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

The feudal system of industry, in which industrial production was monopolized by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop.

Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacturers no longer sufficed. Thereupon,steam and machinery revolutionized industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry; the place of the industrial middle class by industrial millionaires, the leaders of the whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois.

(Marx&Engels,1969:14-15; Tr./Moore)



由這種事 實可以看出兩件事:












在封建時代的工業組織底下,生產實業是由同行組合一手把持的,到了這時,便不能應付新市場上需要底增加了;于是手工工場 組織(Manufacturing system)便占了他的地位。各業行東被工場制造家這種中等階級擠倒;聯合的各行組合間底分工,也就讓各個工場底分工替代了。



  0571-88272987   88272986
浙公網安備 33010802003197號  浙ICP備15039916號-1
(★^O^★)MG埃及旋转试玩网站 丫丫一湖南麻将 河南快三推荐号码 江西多乐彩开奖走势图 辉煌棋牌开挂 棋牌麻将作弊器 贵阳捉鸡麻将技巧 两波中特公式 广西11选5电视走势图 贵州快3跨度走势图基本 体彩河南泳坛夺金玩法 爱玩棋牌最新手机版本 炸金花破解版无限金币 免费打麻将游戏下载 欢乐捕鱼人赢话费辅助 谁有河内五分彩的平台 北京快三走势图一定牛